Nowadays, transplantation of human organs and (or) tissues is an effective and usually the only way to save lives and restore health. It is used throughout the civilized world when medical or surgical treatments are not possible, however, the patient has the potential for further healthy activity. In developed countries, organ transplantation has already begun to have a significant impact on life expectancy and quality of life, as successful transplantation can prolong a person’s life, sometimes by more than 25 years. In total, today there are more than 1 million people with transplanted organs who lead an active lifestyle and even play sports.