The National Waste Management Strategy until 2030 was approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine in 2017. The draft National Waste Management Plan was submitted to the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and approved in February 2019. A new draft law on waste is currently being developed with great difficulty to implement the requirements of the EU framework Directive 2008/98/EC on waste, as well as Directive 1999/31/EC on landfill of waste and Directive 2010/75/EU on industrial emissions.
The Strategy envisages the transition from waste disposal to landfill to an integrated waste management system. Special measures of the Strategy in the field of solid household waste include increasing the level of their recycling, namely the commissioning of waste recycling plants, the creation of pilot projects for the production of biogas or fuel from household waste on the basis of mechanical biological treatment, implementation of a number of pilot projects on biological stabilization of mixed household waste.
The choice of waste recycling technology should be part of the development of regional waste management plans. One of the first priority plans is the construction of regional sanitary landfills for the disposal of solid waste, created using the principles of cooperation of territorial communities. In most cases, waste recycling facilities should be territorially linked to regional landfills. The choice of a specific solid waste processing technology depends on many factors, currently one of the determining factors in Ukraine is the cost of processing.
Due to the relatively high capital and operational costs of landfills that meet the requirements of EU law, such facilities must have a minimum capacity of about 50 thousand tons per year (optimum capacity – 100 thousand tons per year or more) and cover an agglomeration of at least 150,000 persons. The optimal coverage area (cluster) should include a territory with at least 400,000 inhabitants.
Fulfilling the goals of the Strategy until 2030 is a challenge for Ukraine. The main objectives of the Strategy are the following:
- closure of existing landfills and dumps, which also means the need to find sites for new landfills and recycling plants;
- preparation of feasible and suitable for investment projects;
- harmonization of joint efforts of public and private investment sectors;
- communication with the public on the need to increase tariffs for household waste management to an economically reasonable level.
Special measures of the Strategy in the field of household waste include increasing the level of household waste recycling, taking into account:
- achievement in 2030 the recycling rate of 50% of household waste from the total volume of their generation by increasing the coverage of the population of Ukraine by a separate collection of household waste to 48% of the total population in 2030 and commissioning of additional sorting lines and recycling plants.
- establishment of pilot projects for the production of fuel from household waste (RDF/SRF) on the basis of mechanical biological treatment facilities, provided that they are located close to cement plants.
- introduction in Ukraine of a number of pilot projects on biological stabilization of mixed household waste.
Institute of Engineering Thermophysics NAS Ukraine, Senior Researcher, Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences
The document was created within the initiative “Implementation of European practices in solid waste management” implemented by the NGO “Ukrainian Center for European Policy” in partnership with the NGO “Center for Public and Media Initiatives” within the Global Project “Support to the Export Initiative on Environmental Technologies” implemented by the German federal company Deutsche Gesellschaft für internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH on behalf of the Government of Germany. The information and views expressed in this document are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Government of Germany, the German federal company Deutsche Gesellschaft für internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH.