The increased pace of digitisation of processes, procedures and documents into electronic form creates new challenges that did not exist in the “old world” of paper-based documents. Sometimes this process is called “going paperless” or “going digital”. Regardless of how one call it society experience the gradual disappearance of a paper-based ecosystem with its generally worldwide excepted evidential qualities and legal ramifications. Electronic documents can neither be perceived nor read by themselves. Furthermore, in the basic form, they do not in themselves provide any information as to their integrity and authenticity as well as to the protection and preservation of legal claims of the issuer, or third parties, and/or the proof of regularity in electronic legal and business transactions.

Rather, these properties must be established and permanently maintained by additional technical and organisational measures. Namely, those are software, middleware, and hardware but also regulations, technical standards and guidelines that collectively create a new digital environment and good practices that aim to create uniform and generally excepted ways of digitally creating, signing, transmitting, verify and storing digital documents whilst preserving their evidential value. In a new digital environment, ALL parties of contractual and legal relationships must meet certain data protection and security requirements, throughout changes of software, middleware, hardware, regulations, and technical standards.


Andrii Dresviannikov (PhD)

Andrii Melashchenko (PhD)

Peer review:

Anastasia Hrechko (PhD)